The Spur Goad from Lubniewice, Poland: Slavic Elite Culture in the Western Part of the Piast State

Michalak Arkadiusz, Leszek Gardela

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This paper focuses on a copper-alloy goad discovered in 2017 in Lubniewice in Lubuskie Voivodeship, Poland. An interdisciplinary analysis has shown that the goad was originally part of a lavishly decorated copper-alloy spur representing a type known from high-status West Slavic graves (e.g. Lutomiersk, Ciepłe) and settlement sites. Because objects of this kind are made of costly material, and because expert skills were required to produce them, it is argued that they were commissioned by a very specific group of people who used them as “material markers” of their distinct cultural and religious identity. It is not unlikely that the owners of such spurs were members of the elite retinue of the Piasts who played important roles on and off the battlefield.
Original languageEnglish
JournalSlavia Antiqua
Issue number61
Pages (from-to)135-161
Number of pages27
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Western Slavs
  • Viking Age
  • Spurs
  • Slavic mythology
  • Elites
  • Equestrian equipment

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