Dogs ( Canis familiaris ) are ubiquitous in human settlements the world over. A range of studies suggests that uses of dogs vary with ecological context. High seasonality and reliance upon large game appears to favor investments in the uses of dogs as aids in hunting and hauling materials. Regional cultural traditions may also play significant roles in attitudes and behaviors towards dogs. In this paper, we rely upon ethnographic and archaeological data to assess six hypotheses concerning the roles of dogs in the traditional villages on the Mid-Fraser Canyon in British Columbia. We find that it is likely that village dogs lived in traditional Mid-Fraser villages where they may have consumed human food waste, but were also used for hunting, possibly hauling loads, as a source of products, and as a target of ritual treatments. Given their importance in numerous activities, dogs may have been wealth items for select households.