Radiocarbon dates indicate the migration of Central European farmers to Southern Scandinavia during the period 4000–3700 cal BC. ► Faunal and botanical records of these first farmers are frequent at inland sites located on easily-workable arable soils. ► Flint mining and pioneering farming activities are intertwined at inland sites showing a rapid change to agrarian ideology. ► At coastal and lake shore sites agrarian subsistence was applied gradually showing a slow change towards farming activities. ► Local hunter–gatherers and pioneering farmers gradually assimilated during a complex process.