A method for identifying vegetal species in wooden objects using microextraction-assisted voltammetry of microparticles is described. The proposed methodology, aimed at facilitating tasks of patrimony conservation, is based on the recording of the voltammetric response of microparticulate films of compounds resulting from microextraction with organic solvents (ethanol, acetone, and chloroform) of micro- or sub-microsamples of wood in contact with aqueous buffers. Upon application of bivariate and multivariate chemometric techniques, the obtained voltammetric responses led us to identify different taxonomic groups from the characteristic voltammetric profiles. Application to a series of samples of wooden objects of cultural heritage of different European and American provenances dated to ca. 375–350 BC and to historical periods, namely 14th and 17–19th centuries, is described.